Personality and Places

Our paper examining the link between individual personality and the places people visit has just been published in Computers in Human Behavior. It’s open access, so you can go read it for free, now

In an experiment we ran previously, we asked users of Foursquare to take a personality test and give us access to their checkin history. The personality test gives us a measure of how each person scores for five different factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. The checkin history lists all the places they’ve ever checked in to using Foursquare. Because a couple of hundred people took part in the experiment, we ended up with a large number of individual personalities that we could link to over a hundred thousand venues. In total, this represents a pretty staggering half a million Foursquare checkins that we have personality data associated with.

Our first step with this data has been to see if there are any links between personality factors and the places people choose to visit, and we found some interesting connections.

One of our main finding shows that the use of Foursquare for recording checkins seems to correlate well with Conscientiousness. The more conscientious a user is, the more likely they are to have checked in at more places and to have visited more venues. This could be because people with a high Conscientiousness score tend to be quite organised and disciplined, and so are more likely to remember to check in at every place they visit.

The opposite is true for Neuroticism: the more neurotic an individual is, the fewer places they have visited. Neuroticism is associated with negative feelings, and a tendency to be less social, which could then translate into people going to fewer places, and so checking in less. This is expressed again when we look at only those venues classed as ‘social’ (i.e. – somewhere you would go to hang out with friends). The more neurotic someone is, the fewer ‘social’ venues they have been to.

Surprisingly, we have found no link between Extraversion and the number of social venues visited. It may be expected that extraverts (who are very social in their nature) may go to more social venues. However, the data does not support this. In fact, we find no link between Extraversion and any aspect of Foursquare checkins that we have examined so far.

The personality factor of Openness is related to feelings of creativity and artistic expression, and a willingness to experience new things. It is interesting to find that there is a link between Openness and the average distance travelled between checkins – the more Open an individual is, the further they tend to have travelled. This could be an expression of an Open individual’s desire to experience new things exposing itself through wider travel, and a larger geographic spread of checkins. However, we do not find any link between Openness and the number of different categories visited by a user. We do not see a desire for new experiences express itself in the range and diversity of places visited.

Ultimately, this data could be incredibly useful in improving venue recommendation systems. Current systems use many different information ‘cues’ to recommend to a user a place they might like to visit. These cues include things such as where they have been in the past, where their friends have been, or where is popular nearby. Perhaps by including aspects of an individual’s personality (so including aspects of why they might visit somewhere) we can increase the usefulness of these recommendations.

There is still a lot of analysis to be done on this data, and both myself and Nyala Noe are busy churning through it to discover other links between personality and the places people visit. As we find more interesting connections, I’ll post more here.

 

SCA 2013 – Visiting Patterns and Personality of Foursquare Users

Today was presentation day for me at SCA 2013 – I was presenting the initial results of the Foursquare experiment, which has now been running for a while. The presentation seemed to go really well – I think it’s the strongest work I’ve done yet, and so it was easy to talk well and with confidence about it, which led to a nice talk. There was also plenty of discussion after the talk, with a lot of good comments and questions from the audience, which suggests that most people were quite interested in the research. I pitched it as a WIP paper, describing what the ultimate aim of the project is – very much recycling the talk I gave to the interview panel for my fellowship proposal. I think it certainly got a few people interested who’ll look to follow the project as it unfolds over the next couple of months.

After lunch there was an extra bonus when we discovered a beer vending machine in the hotel – what better way to celebrate a successful conference presentation than a cold beer in the sun?

KSRI Services Summer School – Social Computing Theory and Hackathon

I was invited by Simon Caton to come to the KSRI Services Summer School, held at KIT in Germany, to help him run a workshop session on Social Computing.  We decided to use the session as a crash course in retrieving and manipulating data from Social Media APIs – showing the students the basics, then running a mini ‘hackathon’ for the students to gain some practical experience.

I think the session went really well, the students seemed to enjoy it and the feedback was very positive. We spent about 90 minutes talking about APIs, JSON, Twitter, Facebook and Foursquare, then set the students off on forming teams and brainstorming ideas. Very quickly they managed to get set up grabbing Twitter data from the streaming API, and coming up with ways of analysing it for interesting facts and statistics.  A number of the students were not coders, and had never done anything like this before, so it was great to see them diving in, setting up servers and running php scripts to grab the data. It was also good to see the level of team work on display; everyone was communicating, dividing the work, and getting on well. Fuelled by a combination of pizza, beer, red bull and haribo they coded into the night, until we drew things to a close at about 10pm and retired to the nearest bar for a pint of debrief.

Hackathon Students
Teams hard at work hacking with Twitter data

It was a really good experience, and I think everyone got something useful out of it. I’m looking forward to the presentations later on today to see what everyone came up with.

Our slides from the talk are available on slideshare. As usual they’re information light and picture heavy, so their usefulness is probably limited!

Summer Project update

We are storming along with summer projects now, and starting to see some really good results.

Liam Turner (who is starting a PhD in the school in October) has been working hard to create a mobile version of the 4SQPersonality app. His work is coming along really well, with a great mobile HTML version now up and running, a native android wrapper working, and an iOS wrapper on its way. With any luck we’ll have mobile apps for both major platforms ready to be released before the summer is over.

Max Chandler, who is now a second year undergraduate, has done some great work looking at the Foursquare venues within various cities around the UK, analysing them for similarity and spatial distribution. He’s just over halfway through the project now and is beginning to work on visualising the data he’s collected and analysed. He’s creating some interesting interactive visualisations using D3, so as soon as he’s done I’ll link to the website here.

It’s been a really good summer for student projects so far, with some really pleasing results. I’ll post more description of the projects and share some of the results as they come to a close in the coming weeks.

Open Sauce Hackathon – Post Mortem

This weekend saw the second ‘Open Sauce Hackathon‘ run by undergraduate students here in the school. Last years was pretty successful, and they improved upon it this year, pulling in many more sponsors and offering more prizes.

Unlike last year, when I turned up having already decided with Jon Quinn what we were doing, I went along this year with no real ideas. I had a desire to do something with a map, as I’m pretty sure building stuff connected to maps is going to play a big part in work over the next couple of months. Other than that though, I was at a bit of a loss. After playing around with some ideas and APIs I finally came up with my app: dionysus.

Dionysus Screenshot

It’s a mobile friendly mapping app that shows you two important things: Where the pubs are (using venue data from Foursquare) and where the gigs are at (using event data from last.fm). If you sign in to either last.fm or Foursquare it will also pull in recommended bars and recommended gigs and highlight these for you.

The mapping is done using leaflet.js, which I found to be nicer and easier to use than Google Maps. The map tiles are based on OpenStreetMap data and come from CloudMade, while the (devastatingly beautiful) icons were rushed together by me over the weekend. The entire app is just client side Javascript and HTML, with HTML5 persistent localStorage used to maintain login authentication between sessions. It’s a simple app, but I’m pretty pleased with it. In the end I even won a prize for it (£50), so it can’t be too bad.

The app is hosted here, and the source code is available here. Obviously though the code is not very pretty and quite hacky, but it does the job!

Foursquare Personality Experiment

Today we are finally starting to promote our latest experiment. It’s been online for about a month, but we haven’t told anyone about it while we’ve been finishing up the Year 2 deliverables for Recognition (the review is in a couple of weeks – fingers crossed!) Now however I can start publicly talking about it and encouraging people to take part and get involved!

We’re calling it the Foursquare Personality Experiment, and it’s available on the School of Computer Science & Informatics‘ website here:

http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/recognition/foursqexp

It’s basically looking at comparing people’s five-factor OCEAN personality profiles to the places that they check in to on Foursquare. So, you go along to the site, sign in with your Foursquare account and take a really short 44-question personality test. While you’re doing that, we retrieve the list of places you’ve been to from Foursquare. When it’s all done, we show you your personality, and how it compares to the average personality of people in your area (average personality comes from the mypersonality.org data, thanks guys!). All the venues you’ve checked into on Foursquare are simultaneously displayed on a map, and selecting one of them will show you the average personality profile for that venue. This allows you to compare yourself to all the other people who go to the same places as you

Meanwhile, we get a bunch of (anonymised) personality profiles that are linked to venues, so we can see if there are any correlations between places/categories of places and personality profiles. For instance, one of the things we may find is that the average personality profiles of “non-places” (those places frequented by everybody: the supermarket, the train station etc.) are different from the average personality profiles of “places” (the places visited by a subset of people: independent coffee shops, your local pub etc). We may also expect people with different visiting patterns to have different personalities. For instance, maybe I mainly check-in to pubs and bars on Foursquare, while someone else mainly checks in to shops. Is there a difference between the personality profiles of people who check into more pubs and people who mainly check in to shops?

Obviously we’ve only just started collecting data, but hopefully we’ll start to see some answers to some of these questions soon.